The Enduring Dispute: A Deep Dive into the Katchatheevu Conflict


The tiny, uninhabited island of Katchatheevu, nestled in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka, belies the simmering conflict it represents. While the island itself holds little intrinsic value, its location grants access to rich fishing grounds, turning it into a strategically significant speck of land.

Roots of the Dispute:

The seeds of the conflict were sown during British rule. Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) administered Katchatheevu from 1921 onwards. However, both Indian and Sri Lankan Tamil fishermen, for generations, fished in the surrounding waters, considering it a shared resource.

The 1974 Agreement: A Turning Point?

In 1974, with the intention of resolving maritime boundaries, India, under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, ceded sovereignty of Katchatheevu to Sri Lanka. This decision sparked outrage in India, particularly in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Here’s why:

1- Tamil Nadu’s Ire: Fishermen from Tamil Nadu have long considered the Palk Strait, including the waters around Katchatheevu, their traditional fishing ground. The agreement, in their view, disregarded these historical practices and unfairly restricted their access to a vital source of livelihood.

2- Accusations and Tensions: There have been frequent reports of harassment and arrest of Indian fishermen by Sri Lankan authorities venturing into the disputed waters. This fuels resentment and insecurity among Indian fishermen.


The Issue Persists:

Despite the agreement, the Katchatheevu issue remains a sensitive topic, particularly in Tamil Nadu politics. Politicians frequently raise the issue, demanding:

  • 1- Return of Fishing Rights: They advocate for a renegotiated agreement that guarantees traditional fishing rights for Indian fishermen in the Katchatheevu area.
  • 2- Revised Maritime Boundary: Some even call for a complete revision of the 1974 agreement, arguing that it unfairly disadvantaged India.


Official Stances:

1- India: The Indian government has not formally challenged the 1974 agreement. However, it does express concern about the well-being of Indian fishermen detained by Sri Lanka and advocates for their fair treatment.

2-Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka maintains its firm stance on Katchatheevu’s sovereignty, citing the 1974 agreement.


Seeking a Solution:

Finding a solution that benefits both countries and their fishermen requires a collaborative approach. Here are some potential avenues:

1- Negotiated Fishing Rights Agreement: An agreement that guarantees traditional fishing rights for both Indian and Sri Lankan fishermen in the Palk Strait, including the Katchatheevu area, could be a win-win situation.

2- Joint Patrols: Collaborative efforts to patrol the waters and prevent illegal fishing could address concerns about overfishing and resource depletion. Both countries could benefit from a sustainable fishing approach.


The Katchatheevu conflict serves as a reminder that maritime border disputes are intricate. It highlights the need to balance national interests with traditional practices and the importance of open dialogue and compromise to reach a mutually beneficial solution.

Additional Points to Consider:

1- The strategic significance of the Palk Strait for both countries’ maritime security cannot be ignored. Finding a solution that addresses both security and livelihood concerns is crucial.

2- The impact of overfishing and environmental degradation on the Palk Strait’s marine resources is a growing concern. Collaborative efforts towards sustainable fishing practices could be part of a comprehensive solution.


By acknowledging the historical context, understanding the concerns of both sides, and exploring avenues for cooperation, India and Sri Lanka can move towards a resolution that benefits all stakeholders, especially the fishermen whose lives depend on these shared waters.

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